ISSN: 1815-8854

السنة 5, العدد 25

السنة 5، العدد 25، الصیف 2009، الصفحة 1-96


Land –tax in Mosul and peninsula in the Abbased Era A.D. 945-749/ A.H. 334-132

Ahmad Ismaeel Abdullah

Derasat Mosulia Journal, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 25, Pages 1-16

The research deals with the study of land-tax in Mosul and the peninsula, since it has agreat importance in stabilizing the political and economical situation of the state. The research implies the meaning of land-tax linguistically and idiomatically, and the types of land-tax, such as: area, and share land-tax. It also implies the types of planting land in Mosul and the peainsuta, such as: the taxed, tenth (i.e. the land from which tenth is tasken) and sections. The man, who was responsible for collecting land-tax, comes after the ruler in importance. The sum of Mosul and the peninsula land-tax according to Al-yaqubi, Al-hrishawi, Qudama. Ibn-Khaldun, Ibn-Khidathibal-sabe. Al-Azdee, lists is tackled also in this study. Through the study of land-tax of Mosul and the peninsula, we found that, it was bigger in comparison with other regions of the Arab Islamic countries, because the region includes vast planting areas, which used to plant various types of summery and wintry crops. Finally, it was noticed that, the income of land-tax was so affected by the political situation of the state.

Castle Management deputies century Mosul during Atabeg (521-631 AH / 1127-1234 AD)

maysoon T. alabayage Castle Management deputies century Mosul during Atabeg

Derasat Mosulia Journal, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 25, Pages 17-32

This study is an attempt to explore the history of the most important administration agents Al-Mosul Castle during the Atabic-era (1127-1234 AC./521-631 AH.), When the Mosul Castle had become one of the most important military and administrative units that was employed by the Atabic Mosul rule to run the castle was called "Dizdar Al Qal'a" which means the agent of the Castle or (the protector of the Castle) .This agent plays a crucial role in running the Castle and defending the city from foreign attacks . He, thus, supplies the Castle with soldiers and weapons to defeat any attacks, and he some times lead the army himself so to get back an occupied region that Was within the Mosul district . therefore, the agents of the Castle was given so many privileges . This from of ruling was not restricted to Mosul- Castle only but it involved all the Castle that were directly linked to Al-Mosul . Among these Castles were Qal'at –Kawashi' Qal'at Al 'imadiyya, Qal'at-'Aqril Hamediyya …..etc..
The history provides tgat six persons got this position of the Castle – agents ; tge most prominent of were Mujahidil Din Qaimaz and Badil-Din Lulu.

Calligraphy in Mosul late Ottoman

Amer A. aljumayle

Derasat Mosulia Journal, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 25, Pages 33-50

The Arabic calligraphy movement in Mosul during the late Ottoman era fluctuated between affecting, getting affected, being inactive or recessive. It was beyond doubt that the Ottoman interest had an impact on the Mosulis’ love of calligraphy due to the fact that Mosul very near to the Ottoman capital which facilitated the transition of civilizational and cultural effects to Mosul in a deeper and quicker way than the other further districts. Nevertheless, it is hard to find any significant artistic or creative work in this demean during the tenth and eleventh centuries A.H. (16th and 17th centuries A.D.) i.e., at the dawn of the Ottoman rule, however, the turning point starts with the local Ottoman rule (the Jalili era), which witnessed a remarkade boom in Arabic calligraphy and the Jalili rulers pattronized the calligraphers and scribes, which has an enormous effect on the rise of a unique calligraphical renaissance that paved the way for the emergence of a number of Mosuli calligrapher like : Khalil bin Omar Khudada Al-Mosuli (died 1163 H.A., 1749 A.D.), and Salih Al-Sa’di Al-Mosuli (died 1245 A.H., 1829 A.D. ) the chain of Mosuli calligraphers did not end with this group at the end of the thirteenth century A.H. there were more and more calligraphers such as : Sheikh Mohammad Amin Al-Omari and Abdurahman Chalabi Al-Sayigh (died 1294 A.H., 1877 A.D.). Towards the end of the thirteen century and the beginning of the fourteenth century A.H., Arabic calligraphy witnessed a slight retreat due to the political situation and developments in the Ottoman state such as the coup of 1908 A.D., the overthrow of Sultan Abdulhameed, and the starvation of Mosul between 1917-1918 A.D. all of these thing had an impact on the standard of calligraphy in the city. Stranger still, the news of Mosul calligraphy in the early decades of that century were very scarce and it can be said that the generation Mosuli calligraphers of that century inherited from the generation that preceded them in imitating the poor stereotypical performance and style of the rules of calligraphy and mastering them. These calligraphers not only put the works down in books and plates, but also on building. If we look at the inscriptions on the walls of Mosuli mosques, schools, houses, graves and carving works on wooden doors and articles, which belong to that era, we shall see the powerful calligraphical accomplishment of these more.

CalligraphyMosul in the late Ottoman

Amer A. aljumayle

Derasat Mosulia Journal, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 25, Pages 51-62

The Arabic calligraphy movement in Mosul during the late Ottoman era fluctuated between affecting, getting affected, being inactive or recessive. It was beyond doubt that the Ottoman interest had an impact on the Mosulis’ love of calligraphy due to the fact that Mosul very near to the Ottoman capital which facilitated the transition of civilizational and cultural effects to Mosul in a deeper and quicker way than the other further districts. Nevertheless, it is hard to find any significant artistic or creative work in this demean during the tenth and eleventh centuries A.H. (16th and 17th centuries A.D.) i.e., at the dawn of the Ottoman rule, however, the turning point starts with the local Ottoman rule (the Jalili era), which witnessed a remarkade boom in Arabic calligraphy and the Jalili rulers pattronized the calligraphers and scribes, which has an enormous effect on the rise of a unique calligraphical renaissance that paved the way for the emergence of a number of Mosuli calligrapher like : Khalil bin Omar Khudada Al-Mosuli (died 1163 H.A., 1749 A.D.), and Salih Al-Sa’di Al-Mosuli (died 1245 A.H., 1829 A.D. ) the chain of Mosuli calligraphers did not end with this group at the end of the thirteenth century A.H. there were more and more calligraphers such as : Sheikh Mohammad Amin Al-Omari and Abdurahman Chalabi Al-Sayigh (died 1294 A.H., 1877 A.D.). Towards the end of the thirteen century and the beginning of the fourteenth century A.H., Arabic calligraphy witnessed a slight retreat due to the political situation and developments in the Ottoman state such as the coup of 1908 A.D., the overthrow of Sultan Abdulhameed, and the starvation of Mosul between 1917-1918 A.D. all of these thing had an impact on the standard of calligraphy in the city. Stranger still, the news of Mosul calligraphy in the early decades of that century were very scarce and it can be said that the generation Mosuli calligraphers of that century inherited from the generation that preceded them in imitating the poor stereotypical performance and style of the rules of calligraphy and mastering them. These calligraphers not only put the works down in books and plates, but also on building. If we look at the inscriptions on the walls of Mosuli mosques, schools, houses, graves and carving works on wooden doors and articles, which belong to that era, we shall see the powerful calligraphical accomplishment of these more.

The Sidewalk sellers

Muwafaq W. Mahmood

Derasat Mosulia Journal, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 25, Pages 63-82

Selling on the sidewalks became an alternative for market because of the unemployment crisis and the incapability of the economic institutions to grasp the labor power. This paper tried to reveal this phenomenon of which it wasn't surveyed practically in Iraq. Through studying a sample of sidewalks sellers in Mosul city. The research finding illustrated that the sellers resorted to this work because of the in availability of job chance despite most of which gained their bachelor's degree and they are facing a lot of social, economic and psychological problems as well as multi pressures from they will get the solution from all this thought the intervention of the state and it's institutions in order to provide suitable chances of work for them beside rehabilitating them, so that they would be able to practice their roles successfully in the fields of work which are supposed to be available during the next period.

Zuhair Rassam Talks for Children

Raeeda A. Alsarag

Derasat Mosulia Journal, 2009, Volume 5, Issue 25, Pages 83-96

The aim of this paper is to study the rise of the Mosul popular tales that concern the children paid attention by the tulle-teller Zuhair Rassam.It is also aims to shed light on the prominent literary techniques that hads been used by him, its role in implanting in children moral and educational Values, apart from the direct enumerative and preachy ways.